APA, 6th Edition, List of References

There are several ways of citing your sources. The most common are MLA, APA and Chicago. The style depends on various factors such as the subject area of your course or your teacher’s preference. Be sure to check your assignment for the correct style before you start your list of references.


Posted with permission of the McMaster University Libraries

List of references
Your full citations are listed at the end of your paper. Start a new page titled “References”. The citations are in alphabetical order and the whole page is double-spaced. If your citation is longer than one line, indent the following lines (hanging indentation).

Formatting your paper
For a sample paper in APA style visit the Purdue University Online Writing Lab.

Guide to formatting in APA style using Word (Northeast Wisconsin Technical College).


DOI
In APA your citation must include the DOI if it is available.The DOI (Digital Object Identifier) is a string of characters that provides a persistent link to the online location of a document. Each document is assigned a unique DOI. It can be found on the first page of an article or if the document was found in a database, in the document description. The DOI may be a string of characters or in the format of a URL. Not all documents have a DOI. You can find more details in the APA examples.

Examples of a DOI:
As a string of characters:
10.1111/j.1545-5300.2012.01407.x

Place it at the end of your citation as:
doi:10.1111/j.1545-5300.2012.01407.x

Example of an URL:
http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/rmh0000008

Place it at the end of your citation but don’t include the “doi:”

The examples found in the APA section are based on the style guide Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 6th ed., 2010 and the APA Style Guide to Electronic References, 6th ed., 2012.


Listing authors

One author
Last Name, Initials. Example.


Two to seven authors
Include all authors using the format Last Name, Initials. Separate the names by a comma and use an ampersand (&) before the last author’s name. Example.


Eigth or more authors
Include the names of the first six authors using the format Last Name, Initials. Use commas to separate the authors’ names then insert an ellipsis (three dots …) and add the last author’s name. Examples.


Organization as author
Give the full name of the organization or group. If the organization is also the publisher use “Author” to indicate the name of the publisher.  Example.


Unknown author
Begin your entry with the title of the work. Example


Two or more works by same author
If your reference list includes two or more works by the same author, include the author’s name in each of the entries. The entries are then arranged by year of publication. Example

Books

Basic format
Use the information found on the title page and the copyright page. Capitalize the first word of the title and the subtitle, as well as any proper nouns. The rest of the title is in lowercase. For place of publication give the name of the city and the state, province or country. Use the abbreviation for the name of the state or province. If 2 or more cities are given, use the location listed first. For the name of the publisher leave out the words Publishers, Co., and Inc.

Author Last Name, Initials. (Year of publication). Book title. Place of publication: Publisher. Example


Book with an editor
Move the editor’s name into the author position.

Editor Last Name, Initials. (Ed.). (Year of publication). Book title. Place of publication: Publisher.

Use (Eds.) when there is more than one editor. Example


Book with an author and a translator
Author Last Name, Initials. (Year of publication). Book title (Translator’s Initials. Last Name, Trans.). Place of publication: Publisher. (Original work published xxxx).

Add the date of publication of the original work at the end of the citation.


Chapter or essay in book
Author Last Name, Initials. (Year of publication). Title of chapter or essay. In Editor’s Initial. Last Name (Ed.), Book title (pp. xx-xxx). Place of publication: Publisher. Note: If there is more than one editor use (Eds.). When you list the pages of the essay, place the abbreviation “pp.” before the page numbers. Example


e-Book
If the book was read on an e-reader, this information is included in square brackets. If your book was accessed through an online portal such as ebrary, Google Books, NetLibrary, etc., leave out the bracketed information. In both cases you need to include the source of the information in the place of the publication information:

If there is a DOI, use the appropriate format.

If there is no DOI include the URL (web address) from which you downloaded the e-book, using the format: Retrieved from http://xxxxxxx

Author Last Name, Initials. (Year of publication). Book title [E-reader version, if applicable]. Retrieved from http://xxxxxxx Examples


Encyclopedia or reference work
Author Last Name, Initials. (Year of publication). Title of article. In Editor’s Initial. Last Name (Ed.), Book title (Edition, Volume, pp. xx-xxx). Place of publication: Publisher.

Note: When there is no author, place the title in the author position. Examples


Online encyclopedia or reference work
Author Last Name, Initials. (Year of publication). Title of article. In Editor’s Initials. Last Name (Ed.), Title of the reference work. Retrieved from http://xxxxxxxx

If the publication date is not available use: (n.d.). Examples

Articles

Journal article from a library database (with DOI) 
If the article has a DOI, include “doi:” at the end of the citation followed by the string of characters. If the DOI is in the form of a URL (http://dx.doi.org/xxxx) don’t include the “doi:” There is no period at the end of the citation.

Author Last Name, Initials. (Year of publication). Title of article. Title of Journal, Volume(Issue, if available), page numbers. doi:xx.xxxxx Example


Journal article from a library database (without DOI)
If the article does not have a DOI simply add the title of the database.

Author Last Name, Initials. (Year of publication). Title of article. Title of Journal, Volume(Issue), page numbers. Retrieved from Title of Database. Example


Journal article from the web
If the article has a DOI, include “doi:” at the end of the citation followed by the string of characters. If the DOI is in the form of a URL (http://dx.doi.org/xxxx) don’t include the “doi:” There is no period at the end of the citation.

Author Last Name, Initials. (Year of publication). Title of article. Title of Journal, Volume(Issue), pages. doi:xx.xxxx

If the article does not have a DOI, replace that section of the citation with the web address (URL) of the article. (Retrieved from http://xxxxxxxx).
Examples


Journal article in print format
Author Last Name, Initials. (Year of publication). Title of article. Title of Journal, Volume(Issue), pages.

Note if the article has a DOI assigned to it, include it at the end of the citation: doi:xxxxxxxxx Example


Magazine article from a library database
Author Last Name, Initials. (Date of publication). Title of article. Title of Magazine, Volume(Issue, if available), pages. Retrieved from Title of Database Title.Example


Magazine article from the web
Give the year and month for monthly magazines, and year, month, day for weekly magazines.

Author Last Name, Initials. (Date of publication). Title of article. Title of Magazine, Volume(Issue)Retrieved from http://xxxxxxx Example

Government documents

Government document with author(s)
Author Last Name, Initials. (Date of publication). Title of document (additional information such as report number, volume number, publication number). Place of publication: Publisher. Example


Government document with a corporate author
Name of  government department. (Date of publication). Title of document (additional information such as report number, volume number, publication number). Place of publication: Publisher.

If the organization is also the publisher use “Author” to indicate the name of the publisher. Example


Online government document
Author Last Name, Initials. (Date of publication). Title of document (additional information such as report number, volume number, publication number). Retrieved from Department name website: http://xxxxxxx

Note: The author may be the name of a government agency or department. If the author is also the publisher, don’t include the name of the website. Use the format: Retrieved from http://xxxxxxxxx  Example


Legislative documents (statutes, acts)
Title of the Statute. (date, chapter). Retrieved from Department name website: http:xxxxxxx  Example

For examples of citing Canadian government documents visit the Simon Fraser University Library website.

Online sources

Online sources
Author Last Name, Initials. (Date material published or posted). Title of document [Format, if necessary]. Retrieved from http://xxxxxx

If there is no author, place the title in the author position.
If there is no publication date, use n.d.
If the document is likely to change (ex: wikis), include the date of retrieval: Retrieved Month Day, year, from http://xxxxxxx

Note: If you’re looking at an online journal, magazine, or newspaper article please refer to the Articles section. If it’s an online book, see the Books section, and for an online government report, go to the Government documents section up in this same page.


Document from a website
Author Last Name, Initials. (Date of publication). Title of document. Retrieved from http://xxxxxxx

For content that is published more frequently include the year, month and day for the date of publication. Example

When there is no author put the title of the document in the author position, followed by the date. Example


Whole website
When citing an entire website and not just a part of it (a specific idea, document, page, posting, etc.) do not include it in your list of references. Simply add the web address to your text. Example


Blog, discussion group or forum posting
Author Last Name, Initials. (Date of posting). Title [Format]. Retrieved from http://xxxxxxx

The type of format could be Blog post, Blog comment, Online forum comment, etc.

Note: If the author’s full name is not indicated, use what is available. If the author uses a screen name for posting, indicate the screen name as the author in the reference.

Include the name of the website in the retrieval section of your citation if this information is not part of the URL (web address). Example


Online video
The person who posted the video is considered the author. If both the author’s real name and user name are available, include the user name in square brackets. When there is only a user name place it in the author position without the brackets.

Author’s Last Name, Inititals. [User name]. (Year, Month  Day). Title of video [Video file]. Retrieved from http://xxxxxx Example


Online images
Author Last Name, Initials. (Date of publication). Title [Description]. Retrieved from http://xxxxxxx

Many online images are missing the name of the author and title. In this case move the description, in brackets, to the author position: [Photograph of lake]. (2001). Retrieved from http://xxxxxxxx Example


E-mail
E-mail is considered a form of personal communication (along with private letters, personal interviews, memos, etc.) and is not included in the reference list. This type of source is included only in your text.

Give the author’s last name and initials as well as an exact a date as possible. Example


Twitter
To find the web address of a tweet first expand the tweet and then click on “Details” (found after the date).

Author Last Name, Initials. [Screen name]. (Date of posting). Entire text of the tweet [Tweet]. Retrieved from http://twitter.com/xxxxxxx

If only the screen name is available include it without the brackets. Example

Other styles

If the original citation is given (often at the beginning of the coursepack) simply cite the article as if you were looking at the original print copy. If the coursepack does not include this information use the following format.

Author Last Name, Initials. (Date of publication of coursepack). Title of document. In Initial. Last Name of instructor, (Ed.) Course number:  Coursepack title (page numbers of the coursepack, if available). Location: Publisher. Example


Online lecture notes and presentation slides

Author Last Name, Initial. (Date of publication). Title [Format]. Retrieved Month Day, Year from College Name courseware website: http://xxxxxxx Example


Films and videorecording

When citing a film include the format [Motion film,VHS, DVD].

List the main contributors in the author position with their contribution in parentheses.

Producer’s Last Name, Initials. (Producer), & Director’s Last Name, Initials. (Director). (Year). Title of work [Format]. Country of origin: Studio. Example

For online videos see the Online sources section on this page.


Artwork
Artist Last Name, Initial. (Year of fabrication). Title of work [Description]. Location of the work.

If you viewed the artwork online, use the format: Retrieved from http://xxxxxx Examples


Personal communications

Personal communications (email, private letters, personal interviews, memos, etc.) are not included in the reference list. This type of source is included only in your text. Give the author’s initals and last name as well as an exact a date as possible. Example



For more examples visit the OWL (Online Writing Lab) at Purdue University.

Guide to formatting in APA style using Word (Northeast Wisconsin Technical College).